PSGN immunofluorescence

Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis - Streptococcus

The immunofluorescent pattern in both SAAG and PSGN is described as a garland or starry sky appearance because of the subepithelial deposits. 10. SAAG has a significantly worse prognosis than PSGN, with more than half the patients developing chronic kidney disease or requiring dialysis. 11 Immunofluorescence images. Images hosted on other servers: Lumpy bumpy (granular) or starry scar immunofluoresence. Electron microscopy description. Subepithelial 'humps' (finely granular, dome-shaped, electron dense, representing immune complex deposits), no spikes (compare to membranous glomerulonephritis These deposits produce humps, a morphology that is characteristic for PSGN. Under immunofluorescence there are granular deposits of IgG and complement in the capillary walls. It usually presents in children with abrupt development of fever, nausea, oliguria and haematuria. The latter is usually seen as cola-coloured urine The risk of PSGN is increased in older patients (greater than 60 years of age) and in children between 5 and 12 years of age [ 5,7 ]. PSGN is uncommon in children less than three years of age. PSGN is twice as frequent in males as in females [ 8,9 ] It is also called the direct immune fluorescent test or primary immunofluorescence. DIF involves the application of antibody - fluorophore conjugate molecules to samples of patient tissue obtained from biopsies. These antibody-fluorophore conjugates target abnormal depositions of proteins in the patient's tissue

Immunofluorescence: PSGN. coarsely GRANULAR deposits of IgG and C3 along glomerular capillary wall (right, bottom) and in the mesangium (left side) EM: PSGN. subepithelial nodules of electron dense deposits (humps; top right) resolving in 8 weeks; mesangial deposit (Immunofluorescence for IgG, anti-human-IgG antibodies marked with fluorescein, fluorescence microscopy, X400). Electron microscopy. Ultrastructure helps to determine very important features in the definition of glomerular diseases and its differential diagnosis. The location of electron-dense deposits (generally immune) with respect to the GBM. PSGN typically presents as a nephritic syndrome with hematuria, mild proteinuria, edema, and hypertension. Elevated antistreptolysin O titers , low complement levels, and elevated creatinine support the diagnosis. In children, close monitoring and supportive therapy facilitate the recovery process Nasr et al. proposed the following five clinical and pathologic criteria to diagnose PSGN: (i) recent streptococcal infection, (ii) hypocomplementemia, (iii) light microscopic findings of proliferative glomerulonephritis, (iv) C3-dominant staining pattern on immunofluorescence, and (v) subepithelial hump-shaped deposits on electron microscopy Postinfectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is an immunologically mediated glomerular injury triggered by an infection. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is a classic example of PIGN with diffuse proliferative and exudative glomerular histology, dominant C3 staining and subepithelial humps

PSGN in children from less developed countries or those that included substantial minority populations in more developed countries, estimated 24·3 cases per 100,000 person as the histopathologic findings on immunofluorescence in the patients with MRSA infection wit PSGN (most common) 3. Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis 4. Wegener granulomatosis 5. Microscopic polyangiitis 6. Churg-Strauss syndrome. Immunofluorescence findings in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis that distinguish etiology. What is the most common cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) had been thought to arise from renal deposition of immune complexes and as such is analogous to acute serum sickness. Recent studies of acute serum sickness in animals and PSGN in humans, however, have suggested a pathogenetic role for cellular immunity Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis in children, presenting ∼1-3 weeks after streptococcal infection, and is usually associated with depressed C3 levels for up to 8 weeks [ 4 ]. In 1980, De Chadarevian et al. [ 5] first described the simultaneous occurrence of acute PSGN and HUS

Postinfectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is an immune-mediated glomerulonephritis caused by nonrenal bacterial infections. In the past, most cases occurred in childhood and followed streptococcal upper respiratory tract or skin infections, and hence were called 'post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN)' Immunofluorescence of glomeruli in PSGN reacted with monoclonal antibodies which identify immune cells (A,B) and renal epithelium (C,D) in tissues obtained 120 days (A), 14 days (B,C), and 16 days after onset (D). (A) Glomerular lymphoid cells are reactive with OKT8 (arrows). Autofluorescent cells (arrowheads) are also observed

Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis - StatPearls - NCBI

  1. idase may alter host immunoglobulin G (IgG). IgG combines with host antibodies. IgG/anti-IgG immune complexes are formed and then collect in the glomeruli
  2. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is an immunologically mediated glomerular injury triggered by streptococcal infections. PSGN usually occurs in children and there are differences in the prognosis between children and adults 1). PSGN is a self-limited disease, especially in children and young adults, and they show good prognosis 2-4.
  3. Kidney biopsy from a 7-year-old child with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence (C3) shows a granular capillary and mesangial staining pattern with segmental areas of lumpy-bumpy staining (white arrows). Courtesy of Laura Kidd, MD, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tulane University Medical School
  4. IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY • Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals a pattern of lumpy‐bumpy deposits of immunoglobulin and complement on the glomerular basement membrane and in the mesangium. 10. C4 is most often normal or mildly depresed in PSGN..
  5. We describe three cases of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Along with the classic findings of PSGN, the patients had a positive direct antiglobulin test. Two patients had a cold-reacting anti-I autoantibody. This is the first description of this association. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia should be considered in children with PSGN and.
  6. receptor (NAPlr), and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPEB) and.
  7. ulonephritis (PSGN)'. The past 3 decades have witnessed a major shift in epidemiology and outcome. In developed countries in the modern era, a significant proportion of cases afflict adults, particularly the elderly or immunocompro-mised. The spectrum of causative pathogens and the sites and duration of infection differ in adults compared.

arlenieeweenie @cooldudeboy1 PSGN does have a granular immunofluorescence, but there is no previous illness or hematuria mentioned so you can rule that out. Goodpasture is classically linear IF since they're antibodies against the GBM. IgA nephropathy is mesangial IF so it would deposit more in the middle PSGN usually resolves on its own in children, but in adults, it can sometimes lead to renal failure, so another high-yield fact is that age affects prognosis. Next on the list is IgA nephropathy, formerly called Berger's disease . This happens when abnormal IgA form in the body and the immune system recognizes them as foreign The typical histopathological findings noted in PSGN include diffuse hypercellularity of the endothelial and mesangial cells, infiltration of the glomeruli with polymorphonuclear cells and obliteration of the capillary lumens [4, 14]. Immunofluorescence demonstrates granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the capillary loops and in the mesangium Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) Examination. On Admission: Appearance. Awake and alert, periorbital oedema, bilateral oedema of the hands and feet and mild tachypnoea at rest. Vitals. Temperature: 37C, afebrile. BP:160/100 mmHg, hypertensive. HR:85 beats per minute, tachycardic

Histologically confirmed superimposition of post

Acute glomerulonephritis is a disease characterized by the sudden appearance of edema, hematuria, proteinuria, and hypertension. It is a representative disease of acute nephritic syndrome in which inflammation of the glomerulus is manifested by proliferation of cellular elements secondary to an immunologic mechanism (see the following image) Steroid is usually indicated in patients with post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) with more than 30% crescents on renal biopsy. The role of steroids in patients without crescentic glomerulonephritis is not clear. We present a 19-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with PSGN three weeks after a sore throat infection. He developed acute renal and respiratory failure requiring.

s. Only the nephritogenic streptococcal infections cause PSGN and susceptibility to develop PSGN depends on both host and microbial factors. Over the last decade, two nephritogenic antigens, nephritis-associated plasmin receptor and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B have been identified. PSGN is a self-limited disease, especially in children, but long-term follow-up studies. Glomerulonephritis signs and symptoms include: Pink or cola-colored urine from red blood cells in your urine (hematuria) Foamy urine due to excess protein (proteinuria) High blood pressure (hypertension) Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen

Post-streptococcal glomerulonephriti

Postinfectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN), a nephritic syndrome, is the most common cause of a glomerular disorder in children between 5 and 15 years; it is rare in children < 2 years and uncommon in adults > 40 years. Most cases are caused by nephritogenic strains of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, most notably type 12 (which causes. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a syndrome of the kidney that is characterized by a rapid loss of kidney function, (usually a 50% decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) within 3 months) with glomerular crescent formation seen in at least 50% or 75% of glomeruli seen on kidney biopsies. If left untreated, it rapidly progresses into acute kidney failure and death within.

Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis (APGN) or Post

Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is the archetype of acute GN. In recent decades, however, the incidence of PSGN has fallen in the United States and other developed countries, while postinfectious GN from staphylococcal infection has risen. Immunofluorescence staining of renal biopsy tissues with anti-NAPlr antibody. We investigated the expression of Ki-67 antigen using monoclonal antibody MIB-1 in glomeruli and renal tubules of 21 children (18 males, 3 females) with post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). Patients were divided into two groups of active and convalescent phases. The active group (n=13) comprised those patients with clinical manifestations of the acute nephritic syndrome consisting of.

Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis (PSGN) - Interesting

Negative on immunofluorescence microscopy (few immunologic findings) If serum creatinine rises rapidly due to renal damage, always suspect RPGN and initiate testing immediately. If urinalysis shows nephritic sediment, a renal biopsy is vital for quick diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment Psgn nephrotic syndrome. 1. Acute Nephritis and Nephrotic syndrome DR SHIV DUBEY. 2. CASE SCENARIO A 7 year old Male boy was admitted with the chief complaints of facial puffiness and passing smoky and frothy urine for 1 week. The facial puffiness initially started off as periorbital oedema Immunofluorescence plays a pivotal part in the Mayo classification. Immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis shows immunoglobulins on immunofluorescence, coupled with C3, due to activation of the CP by the immune complexes or LP by the microbial surfaces. PIGN (aka PSGN) arises as a result of streptococcal infection, usually with. PSGN continues to be a serious public health concern in third world countries, but the incidence of streptococcal infections has steadily declined in industrialized nations. The immunoglobulin staining on immunofluorescence is typically weak, but immunoglobulin A-dominant PIGN is a recently defined entity often associated with. Immunofluorescence staining of the renal biopsy tissues with anti-NAPlr antibody revealed glomerular NAPlr deposition in early-phase acute PSGN, and glomerular plasmin activity was almost identical to NAPlr deposition in renal biopsy tissues of acute PSGN patients. These data suggest that NAPlr may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute PSGN

Nephritic syndrome is typically characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli and presents with hematuria, red cell casts, azotemia, oliguria, proteinuria, and hypertension. Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis is the result of a post infectious state (Postreptococcal). There is a diffuse proliferation of glomerular cells and influx of WBCs OVERVIEW. This page is dedicated to organizing various examples of standardized exam questions whose answer is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN).While this may seem a odd practice, it is useful to see multiple examples of how PSGN will be characterized on standardized exams (namely the boards and the shelf exams). This page is not meant to be used as a traditional question bank. Term: What type of cells can be seen in glomeruli in PSGN? Definition: Mesangial and endothelial cells, lymphocytes (predominantly T helper cells), phagocytes Term: What can be seen on immunofluorescence with PSGN? Definition: Coarsely granular deposits of IgG and C3 along capillary wall and mesangium Term: What can be seen on electron. Glomerular crescents are dramatic lesions. That, together with their often rapid and devastating clinical presentation, help to account for the prominent attention they receive. Trainees have their differential diagnosis, as defined by the three immunofluorescence patterns. Misuse of the term rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis contributes to the common misperception that. What are biopsy findings of PSGN. • Hallmark - subepithelial humps on EM • Granular immunofluorescence- humps are made from immune deposition • Hypercellular inflamed glomeruli Renal Page 4.1 Fig - subepithelial hump seen in PSGN6. What is prognosis of PSGN. • Supportive

Pathology Outlines - Acute postinfectious glomerulonephriti

  1. al pain, bloody stool, arthritis and palpable ski
  2. IgA nephropathy (IgAN), also known as Berger's disease (/ b ɛər ˈ ʒ eɪ /) (and variations), or synpharyngitic glomerulonephritis, is a disease of the kidney (or nephropathy) and the immune system; specifically it is a form of glomerulonephritis or an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney.Aggressive Berger's disease (a rarer form of the disease) can attack other major organs, such as.
  3. Nephritic Syndrome in Children. Nephritic syndrome is a renal condition with signs and symptoms produced by inflammation of the glomeruli (glomerulonephritis) and increased permeability of the glomerular barriers. Defining features include hematuria, proteinuria (but below nephrotic range), RBC casts with dysmorphic RBCs on urine microscopy.
  4. The indirect immunofluorescence assay for anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) IgG and IgA were negative. The triple antibody assays for Hantaan virus, Leptospira, R.tustusgamushi were negative. The anti-HIV Ab was negative. The HBs Ag and anti-HCV Ab were negative. PSGN is the prototypical post-infectious glomerulonephritis.
  5. - 12F + crusty yellow lesions around the mouth for past week + today has red urine; Dx? à PSGN secondary to impetigo à give topical mupirocin to Tx the impetigo. - Can you get PSGN from skin infections? à as per above, clearly à impetigo, cellulitis, and erysipelas, if caused by Group A Strep, can cause PSGN, yes. This is HY for the USMLEs
  6. Nephritic syndrome that arises after group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of teh skin (impetigo) or pharynx. Hypercellular, inflamed glomeruli on H&E. MEdiated by immune complex deposition (granular IF); subepithelial 'humps' on EM
  7. --so clinically if u take blood test from pateint of PSGN You will . notice less c3 in serum. than c2 or c4(consumption of c3 is more) ,cause more . alternative activation. than classical . Alternative activation lead to less c3 in blood . immunofluorescence of PSGN will show granular ,capillary patter

21. Nephritic syndrome (acute poststreptococcal ..

Human PSGN is associated with a previous skin, In humans, 60% of cases had histologic evidence of acute tubular injury. 10 Immunofluorescence microscopy has been extensively studied in people demonstrating that in the first 2-3 weeks, C3 and IgG deposits in the capillary walls and mesangial areas in a finely granular, starry sky pattern. Let's first understand what it means. ACUTE- transient in nature (rarely leads to renal failure) PROLIFERATIVE- proliferation of endothelial and mesangial cells POST- 1-4 weeks after INFECTIOUS- Occurring because of infections like staphy, strept. GLOMERULONEPHRITIS- Inflammation of glomerulus. PATHOGENESIS The basic mechanism which underlies this disease is SUBEPITHELIAL immune. The silencing vectors pSuperior-Neo-GFP (pSGN/shControl) and shSnail or pcDNA3-Snail are described Immunofluorescence protocol has been described previously . The pSMAD1/5, SMAD2, pSMAD2, and.

— The immunofluorescence pattern has changed —PSGN showed granular lgG and C3 along capillary loops —Infection-Related GN —Often C3 only in loops and mesangial areas —May be lgA-dominant in mesangial areas with/without loop On immunofluorescence there is Granular staining for IgG and Complement (C3). Lupus Nephritis. Lupus can do lots of stuff in the kidney. If a patient has hematuria or proteinuria, you will always be correct to say Lupus Nephritis on the DDX. Type III Hypersensitivity reaction . Immune complex deposition of IgG, IgA, or IgM in the glomerulus PSGN is an immune-mediated glomerular injury resulting from host response to streptococcal infection. In classic cases, it oc- a strongly positive immunofluorescence for IgG and kappa. These findings were suggestive of cryoglobulinemic glomeru-lonephritis Nevertheless, PSGN remains common in developing countries, where it may have an incidence of 9.3 to 9.8 cases per 100,000 population, 4 and it represents a major problem in indigenous populations. B to D, Immunofluorescence showing the mesangial (B), starry sky (C),. •Immunofluorescence reveals deposition of immunoglobulins and complement. •Except in poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN), the exact triggers for the formation of the immune complexes are unclear. •In PSGN, involvement of derivatives of streptococcal proteins has been reported


  1. The etiology of PSGN is unknown, but postulated to be mediated by immune complex deposition in the GBM or mediated by antibodies evoked by streptococcal cell membrane (SCM) which react with a shared epitope Indirect immunofluorescence of human renal cortical tissue with anti-collagen IV mAb 21. Anti-collagen IV mAb reactivity with bacterial.
  2. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis also called acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, is a type III hypersensitivity reaction (immune complex-mediated disease) that follows streptococcal infection, which can be a previous skin or throat infection like strep throat, scarlet fever, and impetigo, caused by group A streptococcus (Streptococcus.
  3. ant C3 staining and subepithelial humps. Only the nephritogenic streptococcal infections cause PSGN and susceptibility to develop.
  4. ation of biopsy specimens should include (at a
  5. psgn. Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis Group A -hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) infections are common in children and can lead to the postinfectious complication of acute glomerulonephritis (GN). Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is a classic example of the acute nephritic syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of gross hematuria, edema, hypertension, and renal.
Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

Direct immunofluorescence DermNet N

  1. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) in childhood is quite uncommon but is associated with progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in as many as 50% of patients.1 Several underlying variables contribute to a better prognosis, the most important of which is the presence of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). Absent that, fewer and smaller crescents are predictive of a.
  2. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis [ edit ] Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is an uncommon complication of either a strep throat or a streptococcal skin infection [en.wikipedia.org] These can help in the diagnosis of rheumatic fever, post-streptococcal immunofluorescence microscopy [library.med.utah.edu
  3. Based on reports from 33 studies, there were a total of 2315 cases of secondary glomerular diseases in all evaluated Arab countries. The most common types of secondary glomerular diseases were LN (1343), Amyl (236), DN (229), HTN (112), and PSGN (63)

Renal Pathology Slides from Lecture Flashcards Quizle

Lab test: ↓ level C3 in blood and positive strep titers and serologies Light microscopy: glomeruli enlarges and hypercellular Immunofluorescence: IgG, IgM and C3 deposits at GBM and mesangium (STARRY SKY PSGN 00 08 03 00 MSPGN 02 01 00 00 MN 03 00 00 00 RPGN 00 03 03 00 MPGN 00 01 00 00 CKD 00 00 00 03 Total 106 (77.9%) 27 (19.9%) 10 (7.4%) 03 In our study, MCNS was the most common glomerular disease and Lupus nephritis had the best clinico-pathological correlation. Hence, they need. ASO test is a measure of the antistreptolysin O antibodies level in your blood, When ASOT blood test results show: A value from 0.0 to 250 unit/ml it means probably no strep infection, ASO titer from 250 to 400 titer/ml means equivocal result need a confirmation by serial testing, ASO titer higher than 400 titer/ml means probable recent strep. Diseases associated with this type include PSGN, post-infectious glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and mixed cryoglobulinemia. , is a form of necrotiz-ing glomerulonephritis characterized by minimal or absence of immune depos-its on immunofluorescence or electron microscopy

Infection Related Glomerulopathy - Introduction – Rapid

Patterns - kidneypathology

  1. ation of the CSF revealed a white blood cell count of 55/mm3 (primarily lymphocytes), a protein level of 239 mg/dL, 5%-10% of patients with PSGN following group A streptococcu
  2. mildly depresed in PSGN. - ASO titres elevated 1‐5 weeks after infection in 80%, four fold rise, Return to normal after several months - The best single antibody titer to document cutaneous streptococcal infection is the antideoxyribonuclease B level • Chest Xray may show pulmonary congestion, cardiomegal
  3. Temporal changes in the rate of PIGN. We indicated the rates of PIGN over four decades (the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s). The rate of PIGN was 2.4% (8/328) in the 1970s, 1.1% (18/1,631) in the 1980s, 2.6% (65/2,464) in the 1990s, and 2.1% (40/1,946) in the 2000s. Thus the rate of PIGN fell from the 1970s to the 1980s and then increased from.
  4. Immunofluorescence of kidney biopsy in Goodpasture syndrome. Note the linear pattern that marks the GBM ()HOW DO WE TREAT IT? Combination corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis is the standard of care:. Corticosteroids such can be given in order to suppress the immune system (antagonizes arachidonic acid pathway); Cyclophosphamide adds an Alkyl group to DNA, inducing death in.
  5. poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) Patients may also have malaise and fever. Dysmorphic red cells red blood cell casts, and On light microscopy, the glomeruli are enlarged and hyper-cellular Immunofluorescence studies reveal granular deposits of lgG, lgM, and C3 along the basement membrane and in the mesangium of glomeruli (lumpy.

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis - AMBOS

The diagnosis of PSGN was unlikely for several reasons, although the patient had a high ASO titer; this only confirmed a previous exposure and not an infection. Additionally, another more probable disease, i.e., HUS, better explained the abnormal kidney function and urine analysis. Immunofluorescence study. We observed +3 coarse granular. deposition on immunofluorescence, and characteristic subepithelial hump-shaped deposits on electron micros-copy. Abrupt symptoms of acute nephritis, hypocomple-mentemia, and rising anti-streptolysin O (ASLO) titers are diagnostic. Renal biopsy is rarely required. Most children with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) recover completely proliferative glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence reveals linear deposits of IgG and C3. The diagnosis is: A. acute post-infectious glomerulonephrities B. membranous nephropathy . Goodpasture's syndrome D. minimal change disease 25.The most characteristic feature of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is A. crescent formatio Believd to be that IgG for C3 convertase and alternate complement pathway(for the PSGN its some IgG which may cross react with BM and for goodpastures its against the BM) So thats it for the nephritic syndromes!!! krishie Forum Senior Topics: 17 Posts: 12

Pediatric acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis: A

Immunofluorescence reveals granular deposits of immunoglobulin and complement. Although most cases are idiopathic, it may also be secondary to SLE, hepatitis B, malignancy or the use of gold or penicillamine. It is more common in men. It is a relatively common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults A renal biopsy was performed the day after admission and analyzed using light and immunofluorescence microscopy (Fig. 2).Twenty-three glomeruli were observed, eleven of which showed global sclerosis (Fig. 2a), and ten of the remaining twelve showed cellular crescents with segmental fibrinoid necrosis (Fig. 2b and c). Interstitial lesions in the kidney were characterized by tubulitis and. PICG, the most common etiology of primary RPGN, refers to a necrotizing glomerulonephritis with few or no immune deposits by immunofluorescence (IF) or electron microscopy (EM). In most patients, pauci-immune CGN is a component of a systemic small vessel vasculitis such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)

26 Renal path review - Nephrology 2014 with Vaid at

TR: Immunofluorescence shows granular deposits that array along the capillary loop, not so much in the mesangium. BL: EM in early stage of disease dark deposits (D) subepithelially. BR: Later on in the disease; deposits have degenerated and are absorbed. Holes have appeared where they used to be GALLIUM SCINTIGRAPHY IN GLOMERULAR DISEASE 483 Table 1. Gallium scintigraphy in 45 patients with glomerular disease Patient Age Gallium BUN Serum Creatininet Urine Protein Serum Albumin~ Serum Cholesterol§ No. (yr) Image (mg/dL) (mg/dL) (g/d) (g/dL) (mg/dL) Diagnosi Type III hypersensitivity reaction. In type III hypersensitivity reaction, an abnormal immune response is mediated by the formation of antigen-antibody aggregates called immune complexes. They can precipitate in various tissues such as skin, joints, vessels, or glomeruli, and trigger the classical complement pathway

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