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Mesangial cells vs podocytes

Mesangial cells are responsible for orchestrating the

  1. Mesangial cells are responsible for orchestrating the renal podocytes injury in the context of malignant hypertension 1. Unlike mesangial cells, podocytes do not respond to high pressure or hyperglycaemia per se. Resultantly, neither high pressure nor hyperglycaemia, trigger apoptosis of podocytes in vitro
  2. Recent evidence has shown that IgA1 complexes from patients with IgAN could activate mesangial cells to induce soluble mediator excretion, and further injure podocytes through mesangial-podocytic cross-talk. In the present study, we explored the underlying mechanism of mesangial cell-induced podocyte loss in IgAN
  3. ating in the development of glomerulosclerosis. Collectively, these data bring new insights into our understanding of the roles of the mesangial cells and podocytes in the TGF-ß-induced mesangial matrix synthesis in chronic glomerular disease
  4. We review the role of mesangial-podocytic-tubular cross-talk in the progression of IgAN. We discuss how podocytopathy in IgAN promotes subsequent PTEC dysfunction and whether tubulointerstitial injury affects the propagation of podocytic injury in IgAN. A thorough understanding of the cross-talk mechanisms among mesangial cells, podocytes, and.
  5. Mesangial cells generate their own extracellular matrix and together they constitute the central stalk of the glomerulus. In close partnership with endothelial cells and podocytes, they form the functional glomerular unit and are in continuity with the extraglomerular mesangium and the JGA
  6. The glomerular capillary tuft responsible for the kidney ultrafiltration is composed of three cell types: podocytes, glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) and mesangial cells (MCs). Podocytes are..

Methods used for characterization of isolated glomerular mesangial and epithelial cells (podocytes) are described as are the phenotypic markers useful for identification. Other sources of isolated glomerular cells such as immortalized cell lines are briefly discussed Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.Podocytes make up the epithelial lining of Bowman's capsule, the third layer through which filtration of blood takes place. The Bowman's capsule filters the blood, retaining large molecules such as proteins while smaller molecules such as water, salts, and sugars are filtered as the first. These signaling mediators are intraglomerular factors that coordinate the activities of a variety of target cells such as mesangial cells, epithelial podocytes, and invading macrophages to cause ultimately expansion of the mesangium and a decline in filtration rate

Interactions between Podocytes, Mesangial Cells, and

Cultured podocytes were more sensitive to MNPs than mesangial cells displaying signs of cell damage and stronger inflammatory response. Both types of MNPs induced the remodeling of actin fibers, affected the cell shape and triggered expression of inflammatory cytokines TNFa and IL-6 in podocytes Podocytes are specialized eptithelial cells that separate the network of capillaries in the glomerulus from Bowman's space. Podocytes extend processes that surround the capillaries. These processes form secondary processes called foot processes. The foot processes associate with the basement membrane opposite from the endothelial cells of the.

Development of glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes and mesangial cells in the human fetus and infant. Takano K., Kawasaki Y., Imaizumi T., Matsuura H., Nozawa R., Tannji M., Suyama K., Isome M., Suzuki H., Hosoya M. The process of glomerular development consists of four developmental stages: vesicle (V) stage, S-shaped body (S) stage, capillary loop (C) stage and maturation (M) stage A constitutive expression of the chemokine SLC/CCL21 on human podocytes and of its corresponding receptor CCR7 on mesangial cells was shown before. SLC/CCL21 has a positive effect on proliferation and migration of mesangial cells and leads to increased cell survival in Fas-induced apoptosis

Synergistic effect of mesangial cell-induced CXCL1 and TGF

  1. Briefly, podocytes and mesangial cells were seeded into 96-well plates at a density of 1 × 10 3 /well. After adherence of cells, the cultures were changed to the serum-free medium and incubated for 24 hours followed by treatment with or without Shh at different concentrations for various periods of time. MTT (5 mg/ml) was added to the medium.
  2. 2. Mesangial Cells 2.1. Mesangial Cell Functions. Glomeruli are comprised of at least four cell types: MCs, endothelial cells (ECs), and podocytes plus parietal cells, both of an epithelial nature and the later shaping the Bowman's capsule (Figure 1).Filtration through the glomerular barrier is under the control of MCs plus podocytes, along with renal blood flow by contracting the GBM []
  3. From the total cell population, as much as 70% of mesangial cells contained phagolysosomes with MNP-SO-BSA, whereas in podocytes, they were present in 80% of the cells, estimated by visual appraisal
  4. Unlike mesangial cells, podocytes do not respond to high pressure or hyperglycaemia per se. Resultantly, neither high pressure nor hyperglycaemia, trigger apoptosis of podocytes in vitro
  5. Mesangial cells are irregularly shaped cells which extend processes from their cell body towards the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The mesangium refers to the mesangial cells together with the mesangial matrix they produce 71,141 (Figures 22.11 and 22.12).Mesangial cells provide structural support to the glomerular tuft, produce and maintain mesangial matrix, communicate with other.

As the mesangial cells proliferate, they secrete the matrix components including proteoglycans. Border WA et al. showed that TGF-β1 increased a distinct expression of biglycan and decorin in mesangial cells . For podocytes, the predominant type of proteoglycan they produce is basement membrane-type heparan sulfate proteoglycans meruli, which may then impair cell viability and lead to the liberation of mesangial cells, thus resulting in a mixed cell population in vitro. Enzymatic dissociation of the en-tire glomeruli can be justified in some cases, e.g., if cou-pled to cloning of the particular cell types; the efficiency of this approach, however, is rather low Question: Juxtaglomerular complex Granular cells Podocytes Macula densa cells Extraglomerular mesangial cells Renal corpuscle This problem has been solved! See the answer See the answer See the answer done loadin Podocytes were cultured in 60 mm dishes to ∼ 80% confluency and serum-starved for 24 h. Cells were then preincubated with or without 10 μmol/l HET0016 before the addition of glucose (25 mmol/l) or 1 μmol/l of 20-HETE. Cells were then incubated for 24, 48, or 72 h at 37°C

Role of Mesangial-Podocytic-Tubular Cross-Talk in IgA

Mesangial Cell - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Human mesangial cells or podocytes were grown to log phase and harvested by using 0.05% trypsin/0.02% EDTA for 5 min at room temperature. The cells were adjusted to 5 × 10 6 per ml, and 200 μl of cell suspension were used in binding assays. Staining was performed at 4°C with staining buffer consisting of PBS with 1% FBS and 0.1% sodium azide Both mesangial cells and podocytes play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of these alterations. Recent studies have cast light on both the mediators and the intracellular signalling molecules whereby high glucose and stretch, mimicking glomerular capillary hypertension, induce an abnormal extracellular matrix deposition •Mesangial cells and mesangial matrix form the glomerular mesangium •The mesangium constitutes the central core of the glomerulus to which capillaries are attached •Highly proliferative and contractile cells •Elongated cytoplasmic processes •Remodel mesangial matrix. Secrete:-Components of the extracellular matri

Mesangial cells can also be found within the glomerulus. These cells secrete a matrix of basement membrane-like material to support the structure of the glomerulus. Answer: The kidneys would appear the same under the light microscope, but the foot processes of the podocytes would be missing in the EM of the minimal change kidney. Patients. However, mesangial cells in the glomeruli, but not podocytes, responded to hedgehog ligand. In vitro, Shh was induced in podocytes after injury and selectively promoted mesangial cell activation and proliferation. In a miniorgan culture of isolated glomeruli, Shh promoted mesangial activation but did not affect the integrity of podocytes The two types of cells associated with the epithelial cells of the glomerulus are podocytes and mesangial cells. Podocytes wrap around the blood capillaries by their pedicles, acting as a filtration barrier. The gaps between the pedicles serve as thin filtration slits. The passage of large molecules from the slits is restricted by various.

Mesangial matrix accumulation in diabetic nephropathy is primarily due to abnormal ECM metabolism in mesangial cells, whereas GBM thickening is a consequence of changes in ECM metabolism mainly in podocytes and endothelial cells.26 Normal GBM is composed of type IV collagen, laminin, fibronectin, entactin, and proteoglycans. Amon CCL21 expression by podocytes could thus be chemotactic or elicit detrimental biological responses in mesangial or tubular cells. However, the factors regulating CCL21 expression in podocytes have. Podocytes and their foot processes line the outside of the capillaries and mesangial cells. They help prevent proteins and other large molecules from being f..

in mesangial cells and podocytes. Finally, the antioxidant response of renal cells in diabetic nephropathy is tackled, with emphasis on targeted therapy. An integrative approach is needed for. Both podocytes and mesangial cells showed strong upregulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase genes involved in the synthesis of retinoic acid. Similarly, the Cd2ap +/-, Fyn -/- mesangial cells, as well as podocytes in other genetic models, and the glomeruli of human FSGS patients, all show upregulation of the serine protease Prss23, with the common. on glomerular mesangial cells and podocytes, whereas ET BRs are on podocytes and endothelial cells.11 We examined the relative expression of ETRs in the 129 Sv mouse. Figure 3 (upper panels) shows that glomerular ET AR immunostain-ing colocalizes with the mesangial cell marker, integrin a8, which is consistent with its expression in mesangial. H. Colledge Mesangial cells are found in the glomerulus, a ball of tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. Mesangial cells are found in a part of the kidney called the glomerulus — a ball of tiny blood vessels, or capillaries, involved in the filtration of blood and production of urine.Water, waste, and excess nutrients are removed from the blood by filtration through the capillary walls into the. Of note, based on the analyses of established cell lines, only mouse podocytes, but not mouse mesangial or mouse glomerular endothelial cells, express PAR-3 (Figure 6A; supplemental Figure 3). Unlike in human podocytes, mouse podocytes only weakly express PAR-2, whereas PAR-1 expression is readily detectable ( Figure 6 A)

Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the mesangial identity

  1. Activated mesangial cells produce cytokines and chemokines including IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, TGF-β and PDGF. We speculate that these humoral factors/mediators from mesangial cells first activate the podocytes before reaching the tubulointerstitium either by glomerular filtration or by transportation via the post-glomerular capillaries
  2. ating the effects of AII expression of ATI receptor and the production of AII increase in reduces the tonus of the podocyte, the rate of podocyte apoptosis, podocytes [51]. and protein leakage
  3. Mesangial cells and their matrix form the central stalk of the glomerulus and are part of a functional unit interacting closely with endothelial cells and podocytes. Alterations in one cell type can produce changes in the others. The cytokines generated by mesangial cells, endothelial cells, and podocytes that tridirectionally and interactively.

Glomerular Epithelial and Mesangial Cell Culture and

Mesangial cell processes, containing dense bundles of microfilaments (MF), interconnect the GBM and bridge the distance between the two mesangial angles. 28. Mesangial Cells28 The interface between glomerular capillaries & mesangium 29. Mesangial Cells29 30. Mesangial Cells30 31 Podocytes exposed to the media of mesangial cells treated with aIgA1 from IgAN patients showed attenuated autophagy. We measured the level of autophagy-related proteins in MPC5 cells cultured with the supernatant from MSC1097 cells treated with aIgA1 from IgAN patients NADPH oxidase-derived excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the kidney plays a key role in mediating renal injury in diabetes. Pathological changes in diabetes include mesangial expansion and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to glomerulosclerosis. There is a paucity of data about the role of the Nox5 isoform of NADPH oxidase in animal models of diabetic. Mesangial cells that have a variety of functions (e.g. phagocytic and immune functions) are also present among the podocytes, but they are difficult to identify. Try to find examples of renal corpuscles that are cut to show the afferent or efferent arterioles, macula densa , and juxtaglomerular apparatus

Podocyte - Wikipedi

A thorough understanding of the cross-talk mechanisms among mesangial cells, podocytes, and PTECs may lead to better design of potential therapeutic options for IgAN. Keywords: IgAN / cross-talk / mesangial cell / podocyte / tubular. Scifeed alert for new publication Unlike podocytes, mesangial cells secrete TGF-ß in response to common in vitro fibrogenic stimuli. However, mesangial immunostaining for active TGF-ß1 in chronic glomerular disease is almost negligible, despite increased mesangial TGF-ß1 mRNA expression, while podocytes covering the sclerotic glomerular segments exhibit increased TGF-ß1.

Glomerular Mesangial Cells: Electrophysiology and

  1. Mesangial cells and not podocytes display considerable transient damage in the course of the EC model. By Leo Ruhnke (5233937), Jan Sradnick (5233928), Moath Al-Mekhlafi (5233931), Michael Gerlach (5233925), Florian Gembardt (297934), Bernd Hohenstein (674805), Vladimir T. Todorov (5233934) and Christian Hugo (282747
  2. Immunohistochemistry and double-label confocal laser scanning microscopy have shown intense drebrin reactions in the mesangial cells of diverse mammalian species. In adult human and bovine kidneys, drebrin is, in addition, markedly enriched in the foot processes of podocytes, as also demonstrable by immunoelectron microscopy
  3. Apoptosis is associated with progressive depletion of podocytes and precedes mesangial expansion. Smad7 protein expression is strongly induced specifically in damaged podocytes of transgenic mice and in cultured murine podocytes treated with TGF-β. TGF-β1 and Smad7 each induce apoptosis in podocytes, and their coexpression has an additive effect

Glomerular mesangial cells play important roles in mesangial matrix homeostasis, regulation of glomerular filtration rate, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in the glomerulus . As over- proliferation is one of the typical characters of diabetic mesangial cell dysfunction, we wondered that TP might exert a protective role through this mechanism Both podocytes and mesangial cells showed strong upregulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase genes involved in the synthesis of retinoic acid. Similarly, the Cd2ap+/-, Fyn-/- mesangial cells, as well as podocytes in other genetic models, and the glomeruli of human FSGS patients, all show upregulation of the serine protease Prss23, with the common. Mesangial cells are one major cell type of the glomerulus, together with podocytes and endothelial cells of the capillary tuft. In other diseases, such as diabetic nephropathy or membranous glomerulopathy for instance, epithelial cells, especially podocytes, are primarily damaged

In the podocyte-mesangial cell co-culturing system, podocytes at 80% confluence were co-cultured with mesangial cells [prepared from the kidney cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats as described previously and planted in nested transwell plates (Corning Inc., Corning, NY, USA) at 30% confluence] in six-well plates. Sprague-Dawley rats were. Introduction. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) is an epidemic disease worldwide (1-3).The main pathological change in MsPGN is the lesion of mesangial cells (4,5).However, the depletion of podocytes in MsPGN is invariably recognized as the main cause of nephron loss, glomerulosclerosis and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which are more serious (3,6-9) Due to prominent perinuclear expression in podocytes GFAP may be considered as a marker of these cells. A different pattern of distribution of immunoreactivity for GFAP in podocytes and mesangial cells might be due to function‐related posttranslational modifications of GFAP resulting in assembly or disassembly of GFAP filaments

Glucocorticoid receptor loss in podocytes reprograms endothelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition processes in glomerular endothelial cells. A, Conditioned media (CM) experimental design. Isolated podocytes from the kidneys of diabetic podocyte‐specific glucocorticoid receptor knockout (GR PKO) and diabetic control mice were cultured for 96. Effects of DPP4 inhibitors on cell growth of immortalized human podocytes and mesangial cells. (A) Immortalized human podocytes and mesangial cells were exposed to either vehicle alone (control) or linagliptin (30 nM; 1-5 days), and cell growth was measured by a colorimetric assay

The interaction between glomerular endothelial cells and mesangial cells warrants further investigation. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that endothelial dysfunction and damage precedes podocyte injury in ADR-induced nephropathy. In addition, glomerular endothelial cells may protect podocytes through secreting mediators Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal disease. All three cell types of the glomerulus, podocytes, endothelial cells and mesangial cells, play important roles in diabetic nephropathy. In this report we used Meis1-GFP transgenic mice to purify mesangial cells from normal mice and from db/db mice, which suffer diabetic nephropathy Therefore, the cells, especially podocytes, parietal epithelial cells, and distal tubular epithelial cells, appear vacuolated. Hyaline-like material accumulates in the media of arteries and arterioles (Fabry arteriopathy) and sometimes in the mesangial regions Wang YY, Tang LQ, Wei W. Berberine attenuates podocytes injury caused by exosomes derived from high glucose-induced mesangial cells through TGFbeta1-PI3K/AKT pathway. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018;824:185-92 62. Wu F, Yao DS, Lan TY. et al. Berberine prevents the apoptosis of mouse podocytes induced by TRAF5 overexpression by suppressing NF-kappaB. glomerular tuft under the endothelial cells or under the parietal epithelial cells (capsular drop). Hyalinosis of Podocytes show variable foot process effacement, especially in advanced stages. phropathy with nodular mesangial expansion (Kimmelstiel-Wil-son nodules) and concomitant hyalinosis of afferent and.

Podocytes in normal kidney. Podocytes are terminally differentiated specialized pericyte-like cells that encase the exterior basement membrane of glomerular capillary.4 They possess a unique complex cellular morphology which can be divided into cell body, major processes and foot processes. The cell body consists of nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the. Although at P0, eYFP+, Pdgfrb-podocytes in either mutant or wild-type glomeruli are extremely rare (supplementary material Fig. S4, arrow), by P28 Foxd1 tgCre Rosa +/eYFP animals had both their podocytes and mesangial cells labeled, indicating that Notch1 and Notch2 would eventually be deleted in both the mesangium and in podocytes in the adult. Cell culture studies have shown that podocytes exposed to stretch do not reinforce contractile structures—rather they reduce their stress fibers, a behavior that is fundamentally different from that of cultured mesangial cells (Harris et al., 1992; Endlich et al., 2001) Mesangial cells (MC) are mesenchymal cells that support the glomerular capillary tuft and participate in hemodynamic control. MC contraction induces capillary constriction and reduction of glomerular filtration surface area. Mesangial cells contact the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), macula densa, and glomerular endothelial cells

The kidney glomerulus, which is composed of podocytes, capillary endothelial cells, mesangial cells, and the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), is the apparatus for blood filtration and urine production. 1, 2 As highly differentiated epithelial cells, podocytes form interdigitating foot processes and wrap the GBM together with glomerular. Märtlbauer E. Pfaff M. Büttner Prion protein expression in bovine podocytes and extraglomerular mesangial cells Received: 25 July 2005 / Accepted: 15 October 2005 / Published online: 17 February 2006 # Springer-Verlag 2006 c c Abstract The cellular form of the prion protein (PrP )is selective expression of PrP in podocytes is of special. Corresponding to the higher proportion of endothelial and mesangial cells in the glomerular capillary tuft as compared to total cortical kidney tissue, and indicating a significant reduction of the proportion of endothelial and mesangial glomerular cells in samples of isolated podocytes, the relative Cd31 and Serpin7b mRNA abundances in samples.

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Surface coating determines the inflammatory potential of

Note the basal lamina between the endothelium and podocytes, and several mesangial cells within the glomerular matrix. Bowman's space is visible around the podocytes and their processes. Comment The filtration interface consists of a fenestrated endothelium, the interdigitating pedicels of the podocytes and the basal lamina produced by both cells line the luminal side of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), epithelial cells (or visceral epithelial cells), also known as podocytes, are terminally differentiated post-mitotic cells anchored on the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane (facing the Bowman s space) and mesangial cells primarily support the capillary loops

The three key renal cell types that make up the glomeruli include the podocytes, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells. As shown, several possible mechanisms can lead to pathological changes implicated in DKD. ROS generation by NOX initiates and mediates the signaling cascades leading to cellular injury. See text for detail In contrast to wild-type podocytes, stretch did not arrest cells at G 1 /S in p21 −/− podocytes (Table 1) (P > 0.5 stretched cells compared to control cells). The data shown are th

Podocyte EM - Medical Cell Biolog

The glomerulus is a crew of capillaries implicated in the ultrafiltration processes of the kidney. The glomerular capillary wall is composed of three layers: a fenestrated endothelium of glomerular endothelial cells, a glycocalyx with a complex mesh of proteins called glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and a layer of specialized visceral epithelial cells called podocytes [] Upregulated Expression of Integrin α1 in Mesangial Cells and Integrin α3 and Vimentin in Podocytes of Col4a3-Null (Alport) Mice Steenhard, Brooke M. Vanacore, Robert An important physiologic function of mesangial cells is their active participation in the formation and maintenance of the mesangial cell matrix and the glomerular basement membrane . Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and expansion of the mesangium are the major lesions of diabetic nephropathy leading to renal dysfunction in. The renal corpuscle of the kidney comprises a glomerular vasculature embraced by podocytes and supported by mesangial myofibroblasts, which ensure plasma filtration at the podocyte-generated slit diaphragm. With a spectrum of podocyte-expressed gene mutations causing chronic disease, an enhanced understanding of podocyte development and function to create relevant in vitro podocyte models is a. Furthermore, activated TGF-ß/Smad signaling by podocytes may induce connective tissue growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, which could act as a paracrine effector mechanism on mesangial cells to stimulate mesangial matrix synthesis. In proliferative podocytopathies, such as cellular or collapsing FSGS, TGF-ß.

At permissive conditions, the cells were grown our study indicate that myocilin promotes substrate adhe- at 33°C in RPMI 1640 with FCS (10% v/v), penicillin sion of both podocytes and mesangial cells, and might (100 units/ml), streptomycin (100 g/ml), and recombi- contribute to cell-matrix and/or cell-cell adhesion of both nant murine IFN. In this image the capillary walls, the podocytes (green arrows), nuclei of endothelial cells (blue arrows), mesangial cells (yellow arrows), and parietal epithelial cells (red arrows) are well evidenced. (Masson's trichrome, X.400). Figura 10. Electron microscopy. Normal glomerulus In IgAN, the podocytopathic changes are the consequence of initial alterations in the mesangial area with accumulation of IgA containing immune material. Podocytes are therefore affected by interactions of messages originally driven from the mesangium. After continuous insult, podocytes detach from the glomerular basement membrane In diabetes, glomerular endothelial cell (GEC) injury is an early event, detectable before the onset of albuminuria, and has been proposed to contribute to DKD by release of paracrine mediators affecting mesangial cells and podocytes leading to subsequent glomerular injury [5,6,7]. The molecular mechanisms for glomerular cell crosstalk and. Glomerular basal lamina, visceral epithelium, podocytes- cell body, trabeculae, secondary processes, pedicels, filtration slits, mesangial cells EM 18b: Kidney (scanning); 950x Urinary pole of glomerulu

The renal corpuscle of the kidney comprises a glomerular vasculature embraced by podocytes and supported by mesangial myofibroblasts. Their combined actions are essential for the formation of an acellular plasma filtrate that passes through the podocyte-generated slit diaphragm into the nephron. Mutations in podocyte-expressed genes lead to chronic disease. An enhanced understanding of. The thicknesses of glomerular and tubular basal membranes and the Bowman's capsule increase; podocyte damage occurs, and hyalinisation of afferent and efferent arterioles with hypertrophy in mesangial cells are encountered Mesangial cells are modified smooth muscle cells, and lie in between the glomerular capillaries. The outer layer of the Bowman's capsule is the outer boundary of the renal corpuscle. The inner layer of the Bowman's capsule is composed of cells known as podocytes. Podocytes have foot-like processes that wrap themselves tightly around endothelial.

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Japan's largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societie TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the TNF superfamily, is a prominent inducer of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo. We previously found that kidney cells display the TWEAK receptor Fn14, and that TWEAK stimulation of mesangial cells and podocytes induces a potent proinflammatory response

Answer to: Which of the following cell types found in the kidneys is responsible for secreting renin? A. Granular cells B. Macula densa cells C... Akimoto Yoshihiro yakimoto@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp Miura Yuri miura@tmig.or.jp Toda Tosifusa ttoda@tmig.or.jp Wolfert A Margreet mwolfert@ccrc.uga.edu Wells Lance lwells@ccrc.uga.edu Boons Geert-Jan gjboons@ccrc.uga.edu Hart W Gerald gwhart@jhmi.edu Endo Tamao endo@tmig.or.jp Kawakami Hayato kaha@kyorin-u.ac.jp. Department of Anatomy, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611, Japa

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